Caring for Our Children (CFOC)

Chapter 3: Health Promotion and Protection

3.6 Management of Illness

3.6.1 Inclusion/Exclusion Due to Illness

3.6.1.3: Thermometers for Taking Human Temperatures

COVID-19 modification as of May 21, 2021


*STANDARD UNDERGOING FULL REVISION*

After reading the CFOC standard, see COVID-19 modification below (Also consult applicable state licensure and public health requirements).

 

Digital thermometers should be used with infants and young children when there is a concern for fever. Tympanic (ear) thermometers may be used with children four months and older. However, while a tympanic thermometer gives quick results, it needs to be placed correctly in the child’s ear to be accurate.

Glass or mercury thermometers should not be used. Mercury containing thermometers and any waste created from the cleanup of a broken thermometer should be disposed of at a household hazardous waste collection facility.

Oral (under the tongue) temperatures can be used for children over age four. Individual plastic covers should be used on oral thermometers with each use or thermometers should be cleaned and sanitized after each use according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

COVID-19 modification as of May 21, 2021

In response to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s COVID-19 Guidance for Operating Early Care and Education/Child Care Programs, if early childhood programs conduct daily health screenings with temperature checks on multiple children, it is recommended that programs use a:

  • No-contact thermometer (never touches the child).
    • Gloves may be worn by the person taking the temperatures, yet they are not necessary if no contact is made between staff and child.
    • Clean thermometer with alcohol wipes before each staff person touches the thermometer.

Additional Resources:

King County (Washington) Public Health Department. Types of Thermometers for Child Care

American Academy of Pediatrics:

RATIONALE
When using tympanic thermometers, too much earwax can cause the reading to be incorrect. Tympanic thermometers may fail to detect a fever that is actually present (1). Therefore, tympanic thermometers should not be used in children under four months of age, where fever detection is most important.

Mercury thermometers can break and result in mercury toxicity that can lead to neurologic injury. To prevent mercury toxicity, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) encourages the removal of mercury thermometers from homes. This includes all child care settings as well (1).

Although not a hazard, temporal thermometers are not as accurate as digital thermometers (2).

COMMENTS
The site where a child’s temperature is taken (rectal, oral, axillary, or tympanic) should be documented along with the temperature reading and the time the temperature was taken, because different sites give different results and affect interpretation of temperature.

More information about taking temperatures can be found on the AAP Website http://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/fever/pages/How-to-Take-a
-Childs-Temperature.aspx.

Safety and child abuse concerns may arise when using rectal thermometers. Caregivers/teachers should be aware of these concerns. If rectal temperatures are taken, steps must be taken to ensure that all caregivers/teachers are trained properly in this procedure and the opportunity for abuse is negligible (for example, ensure that more than one adult present during procedure). Rectal temperatures should be taken only by persons with specific health training in performing this procedure and permission given by parents/guardians.

Many state or local agencies operate facilities that collect used mercury thermometers. Typically, the service is free. For more information on household hazardous waste collections in your area, call your State environmental protection agency or your local health department.

TYPE OF FACILITY
Center, Early Head Start, Head Start, Large Family Child Care Home, Small Family Child Care Home
REFERENCES
  1. Healthy Children. 2010. Health issues: How to take a child’s temperature. American Academy of Pediatrics. http://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/fever/pages/How-to-Take-a-Childs-Temperature.aspx.
  2. Dodd, S. R., G. A. Lancaster, J. V. Craig, R. L. Smyth, P. R. Williamson. 2006. In a systematic review, infrared ear thermometry for fever diagnosis in children finds poor sensitivity. J Clin Epidemiol 59:354-57.
NOTES

COVID-19 modification as of May 21, 2021