Chapter 3: Health Promotion and Protection
3.6 Management of Illness
3.6.1 Inclusion/Exclusion Due to Illness
220.127.116.11: Staff Exclusion for Illness
After reading the CFOC standard, see COVID-19 modification below (Also consult applicable state licensure and public health requirements).
Please note that if a staff member has no contact with the children, or with anything with which the children has come into contact, this standard does not apply to that staff member.
A facility should not deny admission to or send home a staff member or substitute with illness unless one or more of the following conditions exists:
- Influenza, until fever free for 24 hours. (Health care providers can use a test to determine whether an ill person has influenza rather than other symptoms. However, it is not practical to test all ill staff members to determine whether they have common cold viruses or influenza infection. Therefore, exclusion decisions are based on the symptoms of the staff member);
- Chickenpox, until all lesions have dried and crusted, which usually occurs by six days;
- Shingles, only if the lesions cannot be covered by clothing or a dressing until the lesions have crusted;
- Rash with fever or joint pain, until diagnosed not to be measles or rubella;
- Measles, until four days after onset of the rash (if the staff member or substitute has the capacity to develop an immune response following exposure);
- Rubella, until six days after onset of rash;
- Diarrheal illness, stool frequency exceeds two or more stools above normal for that individual or blood in stools, until diarrhea resolves, or until a primary care provider determines that the diarrhea is not caused by a germ that can be spread to others in the facility; For all cases of bloody diarrhea and diarrhea caused by Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC), Shigella, or Salmonella serotype Typhi I, exclusion must continue until the person is cleared to return by the primary health care provider. Exclusion is warranted for STEC, until results of 2 stool cultures are negative (at least 48 hours after antibiotic treatment is complete (if prescribed)); for Shigella species, until at least 1 stool culture is negative (varies by state); and for Salmonella serotype Typhi, until 3 stool cultures are negative. Stool samples need to be collected at least 48 hours after antibiotic treatment is complete. Other types of Salmonella do not require negative test results from stool cultures. Vomiting illness, two or more episodes of vomiting during the previous twenty-four hours, until vomiting resolves or is determined to result from non-infectious conditions;
- Hepatitis A virus, until one week after symptom onset or as directed by the health department;
- Pertussis, until after five days of appropriate antibiotic therapy or until 21 days after the onset of cough if the person is not treated with antibiotics;
- Skin infection (such as impetigo), until treatment has been initiated; exclusion should continue if lesion is draining AND cannot be covered;
- Tuberculosis, until noninfectious and cleared by a health department official or a primary care provider;
- Strep throat or other streptococcal infection, until twenty-four hours after initial antibiotic treatment and end of fever;
- Head lice, from the end of the day of discovery until after the first treatment;
- Scabies, until after treatment has been completed;
- Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), prophylaxis, until cleared by the primary health care provider;
- Meningococcal infection, until cleared by the primary health care provider;
- Other respiratory illness, if the illness limits the staff member’s ability to provide an acceptable level of child care and compromises the health and safety of the children. This includes a respiratory illness in which the staff member is unable to consistently manage respiratory secretions using proper cough and sneeze etiquette.
Caregivers/teachers who have herpes cold sores should not be excluded from the child care facility, but should:
2. Carefully observe hand hygiene policies; and
3. Not kiss any children.
COVID-19 modification as of August 10, 2022:
In response to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Guidance for Operating Child Care Programs during COVID-19, it is recommended that early childhood programs implement daily screening procedures for staff, or other support services, to self-screen with temperature checks at home or when they arrive to the program. Refer to COVID-19 modifications of CFOC Standard 18.104.22.168: Daily Staff Health Check.
Staff who are experiencing any of the symptoms/exposures/testing listed below should not enter the program:
Have been recently diagnosed with COVID-19 and not yet cleared to return to work.
If staff develop symptoms upon arrival or become sick during the day:
If the staff member is confirmed to have COVID-19:
Staff who have been close contacts (within 6 feet for a total of 15 minutes or more ) of an individual who tested positive for COVID-19 should not return to in-person work until they have completed their quarantine. Staff should follow CDC screening testing guidance for vaccinated and unvaccinated persons. COVID-19 Screening Testing identifies people with COVID-19, including those with or without symptoms who are likely to be contagious, so steps can be taken to prevent further spread of illness. At medium and high COVID-19 Community Levels, consider implementing screening testing in your ECE programs.
Facilities are encouraged to develop policies that encourage sick employees to stay home without fear of negative consequences.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
American Academy of Pediatrics
RATIONALEMost infections are spread by children who do not have symptoms.
The terms contagious, infectious and communicable have similar meanings. A fully immunized child with a contagious, infectious or communicable condition will likely not have an illness that is harmful to the child or others. Children attending child care frequently carry contagious organisms that do not limit their activity nor pose a threat to their contacts.
Adults are as capable of spreading infectious disease as children (1,2). Hand and personal hygiene is paramount in preventing transmission of these organisms.
TYPE OF FACILITYCenter, Early Head Start, Head Start, Large Family Child Care Home, Small Family Child Care Home
RELATED STANDARDS22.214.171.124 Situations that Require Hand Hygiene
126.96.36.199 Handwashing Procedure
188.8.131.52 Cough and Sneeze Etiquette
184.108.40.206 Inclusion/Exclusion/Dismissal of Children
220.127.116.11 Infectious Disease Outbreak Control
Aronson, S. S., T. R. Shope, eds. 2017. Managing infectious diseases in child care and schools: A quick reference guide, 4th Edition. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics.
American Academy of Pediatrics. School Health In: Kimberlin DW, Brady MT, Jackson MA, Long SS, eds.
Content in the STANDARD was modified on 4/5/2017.
COVID-19 modification as of August 10, 2022.