Caring for Our Childen (CFOC)

Chapter 7: Infectious Diseases

7.2 Immunizations

7.2.0

7.2.0.3: Immunization of Caregivers/Teachers


Caregivers/teachers should be current with all immunizations routinely recommended for adults by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as shown in the “Recommended Adult Immunization Schedule” at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/index.html. This schedule is updated annually at the beginning of the calendar year and can be found in Appendix H.

Caregivers/teachers should have received the recommended vaccines in the following categories: (1,2)

  1. Vaccines recommended for all adults who meet the age requirements and who lack evidence of immunity (i.e., lack documentation of vaccination or have no evidence of prior infection):
    1. Tdap/Td;
    2. Varicella-zoster;
    3. MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella);
    4. Seasonal influenza;
    5. Human papillomaviruses (HPV) (eleven through twenty-six years of age);
    6. Others as determined by the ACIP and state and local public health authorities.
  2. Recommended if a specific risk factor is present:
    1. Pneumococcal;
    2. Hepatitis A;
    3. Hepatitis B;
    4. Meningococcal;
    5. Others as determined by the ACIP and state and local public health authorities.
  3. If a staff member is not appropriately immunized for medical, religious or philosophical reasons, the child care facility should require written documentation of the reason.
  4. If a vaccine-preventable disease to which adults are susceptible occurs in the facility and potentially exposes the unimmunized adults who are susceptible to that disease, the health department should be consulted to determine whether these adults should be excluded for the duration of possible exposure or until the appropriate immunizations have been completed. The local or state health department will be able to provide guidelines for exclusion requirements.
RATIONALE
Routine immunization of adults is the best means of preventing vaccine-preventable diseases. Vaccine-preventable diseases of adults represent a continuing cause of morbidity and mortality and a source of transmission of infectious organisms. Vaccines, which are safe and effective in preventing these diseases, need to be used in adults to minimize disease and to eliminate potential sources of transmission (1-3).
COMMENTS
Several of the vaccines recommended routinely for adults will prevent diseases that can be transmitted to children in the child care setting, including pertussis, varicella, measles, mumps, rubella and influenza. One dose of Tdap is a new recommendation for all adults and is especially important for those in close contact with infants. Adults often spread pertussis (whooping cough) to vulnerable infants and young children. Yearly influenza vaccination of adults in contact with children is also an especially important way to protect young infants. Hepatitis A vaccine is not recommended for routine administration to caregivers/teachers; however, hepatitis A vaccine can be administered to any person seeking protection from hepatitis A virus (HAV). Hepatitis A is an illness that often spreads to caregivers/teachers in early education and child care settings. Caregivers/teachers should be aware of the availability of hepatitis A vaccine. As of the printing of this edition, hepatitis A and B, pneumococcal and meningococcal vaccines are only recommended for adults with high risk conditions or in high risk settings unless requested.

Caregivers/teachers who do not complete the recommended immunization series put themselves, and children for whom they care, at risk. For additional information on adult immunization, visit the CDC Website on immunizations and vaccines at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/.

TYPE OF FACILITY
Center, Large Family Child Care Home
RELATED STANDARDS
1.7.0.1 Pre-Employment and Ongoing Adult Health Appraisals, Including Immunization
REFERENCES
  1. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. 2011. Recommended adult immunization schedule – United States, 2011. Ann Intern Med 154:168-73.
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2011. General recommendations on immunization: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR 60 (RR02). http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/rr/rr6002.pdf.
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2015. Recommended adult immunization schedule – United States, 2015. http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/easy-to-read/adult.html.