Chapter 3: Health Promotion and Protection
3.6 Management of Illness
3.6.1 Inclusion/Exclusion Due to Illness
18.104.22.168: Thermometers for Taking Human Temperatures
Digital thermometers should be used with infants and young children when there is a concern for fever. Tympanic (ear) thermometers may be used with children four months and older. However, while a tympanic thermometer gives quick results, it needs to be placed correctly in the child’s ear to be accurate.
Glass or mercury thermometers should not be used. Mercury containing thermometers and any waste created from the cleanup of a broken thermometer should be disposed of at a household hazardous waste collection facility.
Rectal temperatures should be taken only by persons with specific health training in performing this procedure. Oral (under the tongue) temperatures can be used for children over age four. Individual plastic covers should be used on oral or rectal thermometers with each use or thermometers should be cleaned and sanitized after each use according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Axillary (under the arm) temperatures are less accurate, but are a good option for infants and young children when the caregiver/teacher has not been trained to take a rectal temperature.
RATIONALEWhen using tympanic thermometers, too much earwax can cause the reading to be incorrect. Tympanic thermometers may fail to detect a fever that is actually present (1). Therefore, tympanic thermometers should not be used in children under four months of age, where fever detection is most important.
Mercury thermometers can break and result in mercury toxicity that can lead to neurologic injury. To prevent mercury toxicity, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) encourages the removal of mercury thermometers from homes. This includes all child care settings as well (1).
Although not a hazard, temporal thermometers are not as accurate as digital thermometers (2).
COMMENTSThe site where a child’s temperature is taken (rectal, oral, axillary, or tympanic) should be documented along with the temperature reading and the time the temperature was taken, because different sites give different results and affect interpretation of temperature.
More information about taking temperatures can be found on the AAP Website http://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/fever/pages/How-to-Take-a
Safety and child abuse concerns may arise when using rectal thermometers. Caregivers/teachers should be aware of these concerns. If rectal temperatures are taken, steps must be taken to ensure that all caregivers/teachers are trained properly in this procedure and the opportunity for abuse is negligible (for example, ensure that more than one adult present during procedure). Rectal temperatures should be taken only by persons with specific health training in performing this procedure and permission given by parents/guardians.
Many state or local agencies operate facilities that collect used mercury thermometers. Typically, the service is free. For more information on household hazardous waste collections in your area, call your State environmental protection agency or your local health department.
TYPE OF FACILITYCenter, Large Family Child Care Home
- Healthy Children. 2010. Health issues: How to take a child’s temperature. American Academy of Pediatrics. http://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/fever/pages/How-to-Take-a-Childs-Temperature.aspx.
- Dodd, S. R., G. A. Lancaster, J. V. Craig, R. L. Smyth, P. R. Williamson. 2006. In a systematic review, infrared ear thermometry for fever diagnosis in children finds poor sensitivity. J Clin Epidemiol 59:354-57.