Caring for Our Childen (CFOC)

Chapter 1: Staffing

1.4 Professional Development/Training

1.4.3 First Aid and CPR Training

1.4.3.1: First Aid and CPR Training for Staff


The director of a center or a large family child care home and the caregiver/teacher in a small family child care home should ensure all staff members involved in providing direct care have documentation of satisfactory completion of training in pediatric first aid and pediatric CPR skills. Pediatric CPR skills should be taught by demonstration, practice, and return demonstration to ensure the technique can be performed in an emergency. These skills should be current according to the requirement specified for retraining by the organization that provided the training.

At least one staff person who has successfully completed training in pediatric first aid that includes CPR should be in attendance at all times with a child whose special care plan indicates an increased risk of needing respiratory or cardiac resuscitation.

Records of successful completion of training in pediatric first aid should be maintained in the personnel files of the facility.

RATIONALE
To ensure the health and safety of children in a child care setting, someone who is qualified to respond to life-threatening emergencies must be in attendance at all times (1). A staff trained in pediatric first aid, including pediatric CPR, coupled with a facility that has been designed or modified to ensure the safety of children, can mitigate the consequences of injury, and reduce the potential for death from life-threatening conditions. Knowledge of pediatric first aid, including pediatric CPR which addresses management of a blocked airway and rescue breathing, and the confidence to use these skills, are critically important to the outcome of an emergency situation.

Small family child care home caregivers/teachers often work alone. They must have the necessary skills to manage emergencies while caring for all the children in the group.

Children with special health care needs who have compromised airways may need to be accompanied to child care with nurses who are able to respond to airway problems (e.g., the child who has a tracheostomy and needs suctioning).

First aid skills are the most likely tools caregivers/teachers will need. Minor injuries are common. For emergency situations that require attention from a health professional, first aid procedures can be used to control the situation until a health professional can provide definitive care. However, management of a blocked airway (choking) is a life-threatening emergency that cannot wait for emergency medical personnel to arrive on the scene (2).

Documentation of current certification of satisfactory completion of pediatric first aid and demonstration of pediatric CPR skills in the facility assists in implementing and in monitoring for proof of compliance.

COMMENTS
The recommendations from the American Heart Association (AHA) changed in 2010 from “A-B-C” (Airway, Breathing, Chest compressions) to “C-A-B” (Chest compressions, Airway, Breathing) for adults and pediatric patients (children and infants, excluding newborns). Except for newborns, the ratio of chest compressions to ventilations in the 2010 guidelines is 30:2. CPR skills are lost without practice and ongoing education (3,5).

The most common renewal cycle required by organizations that offer pediatric first aid and pediatric CPR training is to require successful completion of training every three years (4), though the AHA requires successful completion of CPR class every two years.

Inexpensive self-learning kits that require only thirty minutes to review the skills of pediatric CPR with a video and an inflatable manikin are available from the AHA. See “Infant CPR Anytime” and “Family and Friends CPR Anytime” at http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/.

Child care facilities should consider having an Automated External Defibrillators (AED) on the child care premises for potential use with adults. The use of AEDs with children would be rare.

TYPE OF FACILITY
Center, Large Family Child Care Home
RELATED STANDARDS
1.4.3.2 Topics Covered in First Aid Training
1.4.3.3 CPR Training for Swimming and Water Play
9.4.3.3 Training Record
10.6.1.1 Regulatory Agency Provision of Caregiver/Teacher and Consumer Training and Support Services
10.6.1.2 Provision of Training to Facilities by Health Agencies
REFERENCES
  1. Alkon, A., P. J. Kaiser, J. M. Tschann, W. T. Boyce, J. L. Genevro, M. Chesney. 1994. Injuries in child-care centers: Rates, severity, and etiology. Pediatrics 94:1043-46.
  2. Stevens, P. B., K. A. Dunn. 1994. Use of cardiopulmonary resuscitation by North Carolina day care providers. J School Health 64:381-83.
  3. American Heart Association (AHA). 2010 AHA guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care science. Circulation 122: S640-56.
  4. Aronson, S. S., ed. 2007. Pediatric first aid for caregivers and teachers. Rev. 1st ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
  5. American Heart Association (AHA). 2010. Hands-only CPR. http://handsonlycpr.org.